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While the phrase ‘wrongful arrest’ gets used frequently to describe when law enforcement arrests the wrong person, that isn’t exactly how the legal remedy of wrongful arrest or false arrest works.

If you think you’ve been wrongfully arrested, you may need to file a government tort claim or some other form within 60 days with your state, city, or county in order to be able to file a lawsuit under state law. Suing a police department is the same as suing the state, county, or city. While the primary remedy for wrongful arrest is based on federal law, which does not require an administrative tort claim be filed first, if there is state law remedy, filing an administrative claim with the state or responsible agency will be a mandatory prerequisite.

Law enforcement is always looking for better tools for analyzing criminal evidence in the hopes of achieving more accurate convictions. And, as technology advances, there are more tools at the police's disposal. One of the newest is facial recognition software and facial examination experts.

The new software has already been used to catch, and convict, alleged criminals. But how comprehensive is the technology, and how accurate are its results?

While the First Amendment provides the freedom to associate, people often wonder about whether gang affiliation is a crime or considered free association. Generally, being a member of a gang is not in and of itself illegal; however, it is likely to lead to illegal activity which is generally punished more harshly if there is a gang affiliation. This is because many states define gangs as groups that include a purpose of committing crimes or illegal acts. However, as history has shown, figuring out who is actually in a gang is not easy.

To fight the gang problem, a majority of states have gang enhancements that can be applied to other criminal charges that will typically make the punishment, if convicted, stricter. Additionally, state and federal law enforcement maintain gang member databases, so that law enforcement can more easily determine if a suspect, arrestee, or detainee is a current or former gang member. While it may be legal to be a member, when a gang injunction has been issued, then being a gang member out in public, or even being misidentified as a gang member in public, can lead to arrest and/or prosecution.

Erring on the side of protecting their customers' civil rights, social media giants Facebook and Twitter have recently banned Geofeedia from using their users' data. Geofeedia is a third party surveillance software that sells high-priced services to law enforcement and marketers that tracks social media trends. Until recently, Geofeedia primarily relied on data gathered from Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter, to geo-locate when, where, and who police needed to monitor for whatever reasons requested.

However, it is not just used for limited surveillance of crowds. Law enforcement agencies across the country use Geofeedia to track protesters and social justice activists when no crowds are present. The software works by reviewing public information on social media and analyzing that information to determine who is a threat to public safety and where the threat is located.

At some point in their lives, drivers will see an abandoned car on the side of the highway that looks like it broke down months ago, with a bright red, orange, or yellow sticker covering about a quarter of the windshield. That giant sticker is known as a windshield tag, and if it's on the car, it means that local law enforcement has marked the vehicle to be impounded as an abandoned vehicle.

How an abandoned car is handled will depend on local laws. For example, in Minneapolis, a vehicle can't be left on a street or highway for more than 72 consecutive hours or it will be presumed abandoned. Then, if you don't rescue your vehicle, it may be removed, impounded, and possibly sold at auction.

If the idea of a sheriff rounding up a bunch of citizens to hunt down criminals sounds antiquated, that's because it is. While perhaps necessary in a wild west lacking established law enforcement institutions, we generally leave the matters of search, arrest, and punishment to the professionals now.

So it may surprise you to learn that there are modern day sheriff's posses, still operating in the much-less-wild west, although you probably won't be surprised to learn who is in charge of "America's largest volunteer posse." That would be the infamous Maricopa County Sheriff Joe Arpaio, whose cold-case posse determined that Barack Obama's birth certificate was fake and whose deputies have been warned repeatedly by courts to stop racially biased policing and ad hoc immigration sweeps.

So how much authority does the Maricopa County Sheriff's Posse, and others like it, really have?

The NYPD has gained notoriety over the past decade due to its use of the policing tactic known as SQF or Stop, Question, and Frisk (more commonly known as stop and frisk). The stop and frisk tactic allows police officers to stop anyone on the street or in public who they have a reasonable suspicion might have committed -- or is about to commit -- a crime. While the NYPD has drastically scaled back its use of the tactic, the statistics are staggering and show that it yields a net negative outcome when community perceptions are factored in.

While there are strong proponents on either side of the debate, the numbers seem to show that it is used disproportionately against minorities, wastes resources, and is ineffective (unless used with stops based on "probably cause indicators").

While the crimes of grand theft auto and joyriding may seem like the same thing, there is an important distinction between the two. The amount of time that the thief intends to dispossess the owner of their vehicle makes all the difference.

Simply put: joyriding is when a person takes a car without the intent to permanently deprive the owner of the vehicle. Grand theft auto (GTA) requires the intent to permanently deprive the owner of their vehicle.

Blocking traffic is not legal and is not a new practice for protesters. When protesters block traffic, they are engaging in civil disobedience, a term coined by one of America's earliest freethinkers and intellectuals, Henry David Thoreau.

While nearly everyone caught in a traffic jam caused by protesters becomes upset due to the delay, it is important to recognize that reporting on traffic conditions is a mainstay of local news stations across the country, while protests often get ignored. Blocking traffic means at very least making the local traffic report.

Although organized protests or marches can obtain permits to close streets, frequently protesters move from the permitted areas. When protesters block highways or streets that they are not permitted to be on, they do risk arrest. However, police are loathe to arrest peaceful protesters, even when they block traffic. The recent protest in Washington D.C. blocked a busy intersection for 7 minutes, and there were no arrests reported.

Obviously criminals shouldn't profit from their crimes. And I think that we can all agree that a car used in a drive-by shooting or purchased with money from a bank robbery can be confiscated by police. But what about when law enforcement seizes assets before a criminal conviction, or before criminal charges are even filed?

Recent studies are showing law enforcement officials are taking advantage of civil forfeiture laws more than ever. In fact, citizens lost more property to police in 2014 than they did to burglars. And new information is coming to light indicating police are seizing assets from people without any proof of a crime. So how is all this even legal?