The scam works like this: a person calls you up claiming to be from the state or county or court or whatever government entity, and says that you missed jury duty, which is a serious offense. Then, they tell you to pay some amount now over the phone, or else you'll face some sort of penalty, like public humiliation or being arrested or larger fines. The amounts vary with reports indicating some scammers demanding as little as a hundred dollars, while others demand over a thousand. Also, notably, this scam has gone digital and is also perpetrated via email.
Generally, if you miss jury duty, or are in legal trouble, you are not going to get a phone call. Maybe if you were actually selected to serve on a jury and you don't show up, or you mouth off to a judge on your first day of service, you might get a call from an upset judge or frustrated bailiff, and get in some real trouble.
However, it is highly unlikely that you'll get a call if you fail to show up for jury duty, and even more unlikely that the caller would demand money. Also, if you do get a call from law enforcement, or a government official, generally, they will want you to come in to the official location, like the court, police station, or city hall, rather than just pay money over the phone.