Environmental Law Decisions: Decided
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A federal judge has reinstated federal protections for gray wolves in Wyoming but stopped short of declaring them once again endangered or threatened.

The ruling marks the latest twist in an extended legal battle between the state of Wyoming and federal authorities regarding the wolves, reports USA Today. In 2012, the wolves were delisted from the Federal List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife, and control over maintaining the wolves' population was transferred to individual states, including Wyoming.

Tuesday's ruling, however, places the wolves in Wyoming back under the protection of the federal government.

Nebraska's indoor smoking ban remains intact, but the exemptions for smokers to puff inside cigar bars and tobacco stores has been ruled unconstitutional.

In its decision, the Nebraska Supreme Court ruled that there was no substantial difference between a cigar bar and other publicly accessible workplaces, and that special exemptions for these businesses are "directly contrary" to the state's indoor smoking ban. The Lincoln Journal Star reports that the state's attorney general asked the high court on Monday to rehear the case, which may have dire effect on all future legislation.

What did the Nebraska Supreme Court dislike about the smoking ban's exemptions?

After losing their appeal of a ruling regarding the terms of a multi-billion dollar settlement for injuries caused by 2010's Deepwater Horizon oil spill, BP will seek U.S. Supreme Court review in the case.

"BP will seek review by the U.S. Supreme Court of the Fifth Circuit decisions relating to the compensation of claims for losses with no apparent connection to the Deepwater Horizon spill," said the company in a statement reported by CNN. "In addition, BP will ask the Fifth Circuit not to issue its mandate until the Supreme Court has considered the matter."

What is it about the settlement that has BP trying to take this case all the way to the top, and what does it want the Supreme Court to do about it?

The company behind a Wyoming wind farm pleaded guilty to killing more than a dozen eagles and other birds with the farm's wind turbines, agreeing to pay $1 million in fines.

Duke Energy plead guilty to killing more than 160 birds, including 14 golden eagles from 2009 to 2013 at two wind farms in Wyoming, reports the Los Angeles Times. This plea marks the first successful criminal conviction for a wind farm under the federal Migratory Bird Treaty Act.

Walmart to Pay $110M for Environmental-Protection Violations

Walmart has pleaded guilty to violating environmental protection laws, including the Clean Water Act, in three separate cases this week. The world's largest retailer is now set to pay more than $110 million in fines.

Walmart admitted to six misdemeanor counts of violating the Clean Water Act in two cases filed by federal prosecutors in Los Angeles and San Francisco. The company admitted to illegally disposing of hazardous waste materials at its retail stores.

In a third case out of Missouri, Walmart also pleaded guilty to violating the Federal Insecticide, fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) by improperly handling pesticides that had been returned to its stores by customers.

BP to Plead Guilty in Oil Spill Case; Civil Settlement Pending

It's been more than two years since the Gulf of Mexico oil spill, and BP has finally reached a settlement with prosecutors.

The London-based company has agreed to plead guilty to 14 criminal charges including manslaughter, and will pay $4 billion in fees and fines over the next five years, The Washington Post reports. That's in addition to a $525 million settlement with the Securities and Exchange Commission that will be paid over the next three years.

The plea will settle many of the criminal charges against BP, which has also moved to settle thousands of of civil claims brought by individuals, Reuters reports.

The EPA's more stringent air quality rule that limits how much nitrogen dioxide emissions can be emitted near major roadways was upheld by a federal appeals court.

The upshot of the ruling is that car manufacturers, factories, and oil companies may all have to make significant changes to their business to comply with the rules.

More likely, the oil industry will appeal the decision by the U.S. Court of Appeals in Washington D.C., sending the case for possible review before the U.S. Supreme Court.

The EPA's proposed greenhouse gas rules are legal, a federal appeals court ruled Tuesday. Notably, the decision also quoted a few lines from the famous "I'm Just a Bill" Schoolhouse Rock cartoon from the 1970s.

The unanimous ruling by a three-judge panel of the D.C. Circuit Court of Appeals clears the way for the EPA to create new rules to limit greenhouse gas emissions from vehicles, power plants, and factories, Reuters reports. The EPA's decision to set limits is lawful, and the agency's interpretation of the Clean Air Act is "unambiguously correct," the judges held.

So why did the D.C. Circuit cite a 1970s-era cartoon in its decision?

Plastic Bag Ban Upheld by CA Supreme Court

The California Supreme Court unanimously upheld Manhattan Beach's plastic bag ban on Thursday, ruling that the small Southern California beach town was not required to conduct a full-scale environmental review before enacting legislation.

Though there was no question that cities have the power to enact such a ban, the court's decision will make it much easier for smaller localities to ban plastic bags without incurring significant costs.

Save the Plastic Bag Coalition, a group of plastic bag manufacturers and distributors, have been challenging bans across the state, particularly when municipalities fail to conduct a full-blown Environmental Impact Review (EIR).

Chevron Ecuador: Oil Giant Fined 8.6 Billion by Ecuadoran Judge

When Chevron acquired Texaco in 2001, it inherited more than it bargained for. A lawsuit against the company accusing Texaco of contaminating the Ecuadorean Amazon was filed in a New York court, but was moved to Ecuador in 2003. Since then, Chevron, Ecuador and lawyers representing local villagers have been hashing it out. The court logs read like a legal thriller.

Not only did Chevron force a judge to resign when it produced recordings pointing to a bribery scheme, it has also acquired outtakes from a documentary showing a plaintiff's lawyer discussing meetings he had with judges and government officials. The company also has evidence that shows collaboration between plaintiffs and a court-appointed expert who valued the lawsuit, reports Reuters.

Despite all the evidence produced by Chevron, Ecuador Judge Nicolas Zambrano ruled against the company, ordering it to pay a $8.6 billion fine.