Short answer: Yes. Especially if you live in Washington, DC.
Renters across the country, even in states that provide for legal recreational or medicinal use of marijuana, can be evicted because of the drug. However, in places were marijuana is legal for recreational usage and medical usage, it requires more than a simple "no illegal activity" clause in your lease. Even where pot is legal, if you are selling it, growing it, processing it, and smoking it indoors or in the common areas, you can potentially get evicted.
However, in Washington, DC, just a little bit of marijuana can lead to a nuisance abatement letter to your landlord, which can lead to an eviction. When your landlord receives a nuisance abatement letter, they are under threat of property seizure and you can bet your last month's rent on the fact that your landlord will want you out fast.