Defendant's sex trafficking convictions are affirmed where the government's evidence showed that defendant had the necessary mens rea in the sense of being aware of an established modus operandi that would in the future coerce a prostitute to engage in prostitution. However, his sentences as to certain counts are reversed where the jury did not find that the offenses were "effected by fraud, force or coercion," as required by 18 U.S.C. section 1591(b)(1).
Argued and Submitted August 5, 2009
Filed October 20, 2009
Opinion by Judge Noonan
Suzanne Lee Elliott, Seattle, WA
Ye-Ting Woo, Assistant United States Attorney, Seattle, WA