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Police stop-and-frisk policies have been controversial from their inception during the 1990s. Opponents have complained that allowing officers to detain and search based only on "reasonable suspicion" leads to hundreds of thousands of baseless stops, mostly of black and Latino citizens, and, ultimately, is ineffective in fighting or deterring crime. In fact, the City of Milwaukee just agreed to pay $3.4 million to settle claims its police department's stop-and-frisk practices targeted black and Latino people through racial profiling.

While many cities claim to have scaled back their stop-and-frisk policies in recent years (former Milwaukee Police Chief Edward Flynn denied the use of the practice), the settlement may cause departments nationwide to reassess their policies and practices when it comes to stopping, detaining, and searching citizens.

If it sounds pretty heinous in print, but it looks even worse on video, recorded with the officers' own body cameras -- two Roswell, Georgia police officers deciding a woman's fate with a coin flip. And not even a real coin, either. While Sarah Webb sat in her car after a traffic stop, Officer Courtney Brown opened an app on her phone and Officer Kristee Wilson laid out the stakes: heads, Webb would be arrested, tails, she'd be released.

The worst part? The app came up tails, and Officer Wilson decided to arrest anyway, cuffing and placing a crying Webb in the back of a police cruiser.

It's Hot This Summer, but That's No Excuse for Violating Animal Cruelty Laws

The heat of summer is upon us, and out pets. During these dog days of summer, you might be tempted to take Fido out with you to run your next errand, especially if he's giving you those lonely puppy dog eyes. But before you do, think twice. If you leave your pet in the car, you may endanger your pet's life, and risk violating animal cruelty laws.

Owning a gun is legal in all 50 states (some restrictions may apply). Medical marijuana has been legalized, to some extent, by 40 states (with six more on the way). But doing those two legal things at the same time is illegal, according to the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF).

An open letter released by the ATF in 2011 asserts that federal law prohibits anyone who is an "unlawful user of or addicted to any controlled substance" from shipping, transporting, receiving or possessing firearms or ammunition. And the ATF confirmed the letter was still in effect this week.

There can be a million reasons why someone who witnessed a crime doesn't testify at a suspect's criminal trial. Fear of reprisal is an obvious one, or maybe the person legitimately doesn't want to see the defendant prosecuted or possibly jailed. Perhaps the witness has moral objections to the criminal justice system generally or the way the particular case was handled, and doesn't want to cooperate. Or it could be something as simple as not being properly advised -- via subpoena or other means -- about the details of the trial or case.

Whatever a witness's reasons for not testifying, prosecutors have a legal obligation to see justice done in every case. And they may want a person to testify even if that person doesn't want to. But how far can prosecutors go to secure a material witness and ensure they testify at trial?

While you cruise around, checking Twitter on your phone, texting your friends about dinner plans, or, I dunno, using your cell phone for an actual phone call, your phone is connecting to nearby cell towers, always searching for the best signal. Cellular signal providers, and (by request) police, can therefore get a good handle on your whereabouts, based on the towers your cell phone is "pinging." And even though this might not seem like particularly invasive data -- after all, you're probably updated your Facebook status with your location added -- it can provide law enforcement with a comprehensive view of your daily life.

Therefore, according to a Supreme Court ruling this morning, police must obtain a warrant to get a phone's location information from cell towers. Here's what that means.

Chicago Cracks Down on Illegal Party Buses

Whether celebrating a bachelor or bachelorette, your bestie's birthday, a reunion, a wedding, or just the fact that it's Friday, you've probably been in or considered hiring a party bus. And while it can make bar-hopping a lot more fun and efficient, it doesn't take mental gymnastics to think of all the potential hazards either.

Citing such safety concerns, the City of Chicago announced it will be cracking down on illegal party busses thanks to a new agreement between various state entities. So, if you're a party bus entrepreneur, better make sure you're on the up-and-up.

Most of us are used to the TSA screening process at airports by now. No liquids over 3.4 ounces. Take out your laptops. Take off your shoes. Maybe go through that X-ray machine.

And, every now and them, we get pulled aside for some extra attention. Sometimes that's an extra search of your carry-on, and sometimes it's TSA agents swabbing your hands and luggage. But what's that swabbing for, and what happens if it tests positive?

Whether to solve the crime in the first instance, or to exonerate an innocent person, there are many reasons to fully process rape kits as quickly as possible. And while there is some federal funding set aside to address the enormous backlog of unprocessed sexual assault kits nationwide, the actual processing is left up to local law enforcement.

But that is starting to change. Several states are passing legislation aimed at decreasing the backlog of unprocessed rape and sexual assault kits, as well as requiring law enforcement agencies to fully process kits with a specific amount of time. Those laws can vary, however, so here's a quick overview of rape kit issues and some state laws trying to address them.

Who Regulates How Police Use New Tech?

The way in which the police go about enforcing the law is an issue that's been debated for a long, long time. Whether it's individual police tactics, the militarization of the police force, or issues with race relations, there are a lot of opinions out there. 

But with advancements in technology like enhanced surveillance and artificial intelligence, new questions and concerns arise. For one, who regulates how the police use new technology?